Chronology of State History

Suriname

By Ben Cahoon

[National flag of the Netherlands][National flag of the Netherlands]
27 Feb 1667 – 15 Dec 1959

[1959-1975 Flag of Suriname][1959-1975 Flag of Suriname]
15 Dec 1959 – 25 Nov 1975

Suriname flagSuriname flag
Adopted 25 Nov 1975

National Anthem
“God zij met ons Suriname!”
(God Be With Our Suriname)
Adopted 7 Dec 1954

Capital: Paramaribo
(Fort Zeelandia 1739-1815;
Fort Kykoveral 1667-1739;
Fort Willoughby 1650-1667)

National Holiday: 25 Nov (1975)
Independence Day

Population: 566,846 (2013)
GDP: $7.12 billion (2013)

Exports: $2.51 billion (2012)
Imports: $1.77 billion (2013)

Ethnic groups: Suriname Creole (“Afro-Surinamese” mixed Jew or white and African) 17.7% and Maroons (descendants of escaped Africans and African Americans living in the interior) 14.7%, Hindustani (“East Indians” ancestors from northern India) 27.4%, Javanese (Indonesian) 14.6%, , Amerindian 1.5%, other/unknown 15.7% (2004)

Total Active Armed Forces: 1,840 (2010)

 

CHRONOLOGY

  • 1593 – 1629 Spanish colony (Provincia de Guayana).
  • 1650   English settlement at Willoughby (modern-day Paramaribo).
  • 27 Feb 1667 Dutch colony (Dutch Guiana); ceded to Dutch by England by the Treaty of Breda 31 Jul 1667.
  • 7 Oct 1667 – 28 Apr 1668 English occupation.
  • 20 Aug 1799 – 4 Dec 1802 British occupation.
  • 4 Dec 1802 Restored to the Netherlands.
  • 9 May 1804 – 27 Feb 1816 British occupation.
  • 27 Feb 1816 Restored to the Netherlands (Dutch Guiana).
  • 1828 – 27 Jan 1848 Bonaire, Aruba, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten and Dutch Guiana united as the Dutch West Indies; with the governor of Dutch Guiana as the governor-general.
  • 25 Nov 1941 – Aug 1945 U.S. forces garrison Surinam, Dutch rule continues.
  • 20 Sep 1948 Renamed Suriname.
  • 15 Dec 1954 Autonomous part of The Netherlands, end of colonial status.
  • 25 Nov 1975 Independence (Republic of Suriname [also spelled Surinam until 23 Jan 1978]).

Chairman of the National Military Council (de facto leader)
25 Feb 1980 – 25 Jan 1988 Désiré “Dési” Delano Bouterse (b. 1945) Mil

Governor Spanish Guayana
1593 – 1629 Domingo de Vera e Ibargoyen (b. c.1550 – d. 1629)
Governors of Willoughby
1650 – 1654 Anthony Rowse (Rous)
1654 – 27 Feb 1667 William Byam (b. 1623 – d. 1670)
Governors of Dutch Guiana (of the Dutch West India Company)
27 Feb 1667 – 7 Oct 1667 Mauritz de Rama
7 Oct 1667 – 3 Nov 1667 John Harman (d. 1673)
3 Nov 1667 – 1 Feb 1668 Samuel Barry (d. c.1698)
1688 James Bannister (b. 1624 – d. 1674)
28 Apr 1668 – 1669 Abraham Crijnssen (acting) (d. 1669)
1669 – 1671 Philip Julius Lichtenbergh (b. 1637 – d. 1678)
1671 – 22 Mar 1677 Pieter Versterre (acting) (d. 1677)
1677 Abel Thisso (1st time)(acting)
1677 – 1678 Tobias Adriaenssen
1678 – Dec 1678 Abel Thisso (2nd time)(acting)
Dec 1678 – Apr 1680 Johannes Heinsius (b. c.1625 – d. 1680)
1680 Everhard van Hemert (acting)
1680 – 1683 Laurens Verboom (acting) (b. 1654 – d. 1688)
1683 – 19 Jul 1688 Cornelis van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck (b. 1637 – d. 1688)
1688 – 1689 Abraham van Vredenburg (acting)
1689 – 1696 Johan van Scharphuizen (d. 1699)
14 May 1696 – 2 Mar 1707 Paulus van der Veen (b. c.1660 – d. 1733)
2 Mar 1707 – 27 Sep 1707 Wilhelm de Gruijter (Gruyter) (b. 16.. – d. 1707)
27 Sep 1707 – 19 Jan 1710 François Anthony de Raineval (Rayneval) (b. 16.. – d. 1726) (1st time) (acting)
19 Jan 1710 – 28 Jul 1715 Johan de Goijer (b. 16.. – d. 1715)
28 Jul 1715 – 22 Jan 1716 François Anthony de Raineval (s.a.) (2nd time) (acting)
22 Jan 1716 – 4 Oct 1717 Johan de Mahony (b. 16.. – d. 1717)
4 Oct 1717 – 2 Mar 1718 François Anthony de Raineval (s.a.) (3rd time) (acting)
2 Mar 1718 – 4 Sep 1721 Johan Coutier (b. 16.. – d. 1721)
4 Sep 1721 – 1 Mar 1722 François Anthony de Raineval (s.a.) (4th time) (acting)
Governors-general (1828-1848 also governor-general of the Dutch West Indies)
1 Mar 1722 – 17 Sep 1727 Hendrik Temminck (b. c.1680 – d. 1727)
17 Sep 1727 – 9 Nov 1728 Johannes Bley (acting)
9 Nov 1728 – 26 Jan 1734 Karel Emilius Henry de Cheusses (b. 1702 – d. 1734)
26 Jan 1734 – 11 Dec 1734 Johan François Cornelis de Vries (d. 1735) (1st time) (acting)
11 Dec 1734 – 26 Jan 1735 Jacob Alexander Henry de Cheusses (b. 1704 – d. 1735)
26 Jan 1735 – 4 Mar 1735 Johan François Cornelis de Vries (s.a.) (2nd time) (acting)
4 Mar 1735 – 22 Dec 1735 Councils of the Court of Police and Criminal Justice (acting)
22 Dec 1735 – 11 Aug 1737 Johan Raije van Brenelerwaard (b. 1699 – d. 1737)
11 Aug 1737 – 15 Oct 1742 Gerard van de Schepper (d. 1742) (acting to 1738)
15 Oct 1742 – 23 Apr 1751 Johan Jacob Mauricius (b. 1692 – d. 1768)
23 Apr 1751 – 7 Sep 1752 Hendrik Ernst baron van Spörcke (d. 1752) (acting)
7 Sep 1752 – 22 Oct 1754 Wigbold Crommelin (1st time) (b. 1712 – d. 1789) (acting)
22 Oct 1754 – 24 Aug 1756 Pieter Albert van der Meer (d. 1756)
24 Aug 1756 – 21 Jan 1757 Jan Nepveu (1st time) (acting) (b. 1719 – d. 1779)
21 Jan 1757 – 22 Nov 1768 Wigbold Crommelin (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 20 Sep 1757)
22 Nov 1768 – 27 Feb 1779 Jan Nepveu (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 8 Mar 1770)
27 Feb 1779 – 23 Sep 1783 Bernard Texier (b. 1725 – d. 1783)
23 Sep 1783 – 24 Dec 1784 Wolphert Jacob Beeldsnijder Matroos (b. 1742 – d. 1793) (acting)
24 Dec 1784 – 15 Jun 1790 Jan Gerhard Wichers (b. 1745 – d. 1808)
15 Jun 1790 – 4 Dec 1802 Juriaan François de Frederici (b. 1751 – d. 1812) (acting to 24 Aug 1792)
4 Dec 1802 – 9 Dec 1803 Willem Otto Blois van Treslong (b. 1765 – d. 1837) (acting)
9 Dec 1803 – 9 May 1804 Pierre Berranger -Commissioner-general
9 May 1804 – 15 Apr 1805 Sir Charles Green (b. 1749 – d. 1831)
15 Apr 1805 – 27 Sep 1808 William Carlyon Hughes -Lieutenant governor(b. 1752 – d. 1808)
27 Sep 1808 – 4 May 1809 Sir John Wardlaw (acting) (b. 1775 – d. 1848)
4 May 1809 – 8 Nov 1811 Charles Bentinck, Earl of Bentinck -Chief commissioner (b. 1764 – d. 1811)
8 Nov 1811 – 27 Feb 1816 Pinson Bonham (acting) (b. 1762 – d. 1855)
27 Feb 1816 – 18 Jul 1816 Willem Benjamin van Panhuijs (b. 1764 – d. 1816)
18 Jul 1816 – 1 Apr 1822 Cornelis Reinhard Vaillant (acting)(b. 1781 – d. 1849)
1 Apr 1822 – 12 Oct 1827 Abraham de Veer (b. 1767 – d. 1838)
12 Oct 1827 – 1 Aug 1828 Johannes Graaf van den Bosch -Commissioner-general (b. 1780 – d. 1844)
1 Aug 1828 – 19 Dec 1831 Paulus Roelof Cantz’laar (b. 1771 – d. 1831)
19 Dec 1831 – 5 Jun 1838 Evert Ludolph baron van Heeckeren (b. 1784 – d. 1838) (acting to 6 May 1832)
5 Jun 1838 – 16 Jul 1839 Philippus de Kanter (1st time) (b. 1804 – d. 1852) (acting)
16 Jul 1839 – 31 Mar 1842 Julius Constantijn Rijk (b. 1787 – d. 1854)
31 Mar 1842 – 15 Nov 1842 Philippus de Kanter (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting)
15 Nov 1842 – 16 Jul 1845 Burchard Jean Elias (b. 1799 – d. 1871)
16 Jul 1845 – 13 Oct 1845 Philippus de Kanter (3rd time) (s.a.) (acting)
13 Oct 1845 – 1 Mar 1852 Reinier Frederik baron van Raders (b. 1794 – d. 1868)
1 Mar 1852 – 14 Jun 1852 Philippus de Kanter (4th time) (s.a.) (acting)
14 Jun 1852 – 22 Jun 1852 Coenraad Barends (acting)
22 Jun 1852 – 25 Aug 1855 Johann George Otto Stuart von Schmidt auf Altenstadt (b. 1806 – d. 1857)
25 Aug 1855 – 11 Aug 1859 Charles Pierre Schimpf (b. 1813 – d. 1886)
11 Aug 1859 – 29 Jun 1867 Reinhart Frans van Lansberge (b. 1804 – d. 1873)
29 Jun 1867 – 1 Aug 1873 Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga (b. 1822 – d. 1896)
1 Aug 1873 – 1 Nov 1882 Cornelis Ascanius van Sypesteyn (b. 1823 – d. 1892)
1 Nov 1882 – 30 Jul 1885 Johannes Herbert August Willem baron van Heerdt tot Eversberg (b. 1829 – d. 1893)
30 Jul 1885 – 18 Jul 1888 Hendrik Jan Smidt (b. 1831 – d. 1917)
18 Jul 1888 – 30 Jan 1889 Warmolt Tonckens (1st time)(acting)(b. 1848 – d. 1922)
30 Jan 1889 – 27 Jun 1891 Maurits Adriaan de Savornin Lohman (b. 1832 – d. 1899)
27 Jun 1891 – 12 May 1896 Titus Anthony Jacob van Asch van Wijck (b. 1849 – d. 1902)
12 May 1896 – 4 Oct 1902 Warmolt Tonckens (2nd time) (s.a.)
4 Oct 1902 – 12 Sep 1905 Cornelis Lely (b. 1854 – d. 1929)
12 Sep 1905 – 18 Nov 1905 David Hendrick Havelaar (acting) (b. 1852 – d. 1918)
18 Nov 1905 – 28 Feb 1908 Alexander Willem Frederik Idenburg (b. 1861 – d. 1935)
28 Feb 1908 – 10 Aug 1908 Pieter Hofstede Crull (1st time) (b. 1862 – d. 1925) (acting)
10 Aug 1908 – 30 Jun 1911 Dirk Fock (b. 1858 – d. 1941)
30 Jun 1911 – 14 Jul 1911 Louis Marie Rollin Couquerque (b. 1869 – d. 1960)
14 Jul 1911 – 17 Oct 1911 Pieter Hofstede Crull (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting)
17 Oct 1911 – 25 Nov 1916 Willem Dirk Hendrik baron van Asbeck (b. 1858 – d. 1935)
25 Nov 1916 – 25 Nov 1919 Gerard Johan Staal (1st time) (b. 1870 – d. 1936)
25 Nov 1919 – 15 Jul 1920 Lambertus Johannes Rietberg (b. 1870 – d. 1924) (1st time)
15 Jul 1920 – 16 Dec 1920 Gerard Johan Staal (2nd time) (s.a.)
16 Dec 1920 – 23 May 1921 Lambertus Johannes Rietberg (s.a.) (2nd time)
23 May 1921 – 21 May 1924 Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van Reemstra (b. 1871 – d. 1957) (1st time)
21 May 1924 – 18 Sep 1924 Lambertus Johannes Rietberg (s.a.) (3rd time)
18 Sep 1924 – 21 Feb 1925 Jan Luchies Nysingh (b. 1877 – d. 1945)
21 Feb 1925 – 1 Apr 1928 Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van Reemstra (s.a.)   (2nd time)
1 Apr 1928 – 16 Aug 1933 Abraham “Bram” Arnold Lodewijk Rutgers (b. 1884 – d. 1966)
16 Aug 1933 – 3 Jan 1944 Johannes Coenraad Kielstra (b. 1878 – d. 1951)
16 Aug 1935 – 12 Apr 1936 Johannes Cornelis Brons (b. 1884 – d. 1964) (1st time)(acting for Kielstra)
Sep 1938 – Jan 1939 Johannes Cornelis Brons (s.a.) (2nd time)(acting for Kielstra)
3 Jan 1944 – 2 Aug 1948 Johannes Cornelis Brons (3rd time) (s.a.)
2 Aug 1948 – 2 Dec 1949 Willem Huender (b. 1900 – d. 1963)
2 Dec 1949 – 11 Feb 1956 Jan Klaasesz (b. 1907 – d. 1997)
11 Feb 1956 – 18 Mar 1963 Jan van Tilburg (b. 1900 – d. 1977)
19 Mar 1963 – 22 Aug 1964 Archibald Currie (b. 1889 – d. 1986) (acting to 1 May 1963)
22 Aug 1964 – 26 Feb 1965 François Haverschmidt (acting) (b. 1906 – d. 1987)
26 Feb 1965 – 12 Aug 1968 Henri Lucien de Vries (b. 1909 – d. 1987)
12 Aug 1968 – 25 Nov 1975 Johan Henri Eliza Ferrier (b. 1910 – d. 2010)

Presidents
25 Nov 1975 – 13 Aug 1980 Johan Henri Eliza Ferrier (s.a.) Non-party
13 Aug 1980 – 15 Aug 1980 Désiré “Dési” Delano Bouterse (s.a.) Mil (National Army Commander)(1st time)
15 Aug 1980 – 4 Feb 1982 Hendrick Rudolf Chin A Sen (b. 1934 – d. 1999) PNR
4 Feb 1982 – 8 Feb 1982 Désiré “Dési” Delano Bouterse (s.a.) Mil (National Army Commander)(2nd time)
8 Feb 1982 – 25 Jan 1988 Lachmipersad Frederick Ramdat Misier (acting) (b. 1926 – d. 2004) Non-party
25 Jan 1988 – 24 Dec 1990 Ramsewak Shankar (b. 1937) VHP
24 Dec 1990 – 30 Dec 1990 Ivan Frank Graanoogst Mil (National Army Commander)
30 Dec 1990 – 16 Sep 1991 Johannes Samuel Petrus Kraag (b. 1913 – d. 1996) NPS + FDO
16 Sep 1991 – 14 Sep 1996 Runaldo Ronald Venetiaan (1st time)(b. 1936) NPS + NF
14 Sep 1996 – 12 Aug 2000 Jules Albert Wijdenbosch (b. 1941) NDP
12 Aug 2000 – 12 Aug 2010 Runaldo Ronald Venetiaan (2nd time)(s.a.) NPS + NF
12 Aug 2010 – Désiré “Dési” Delano Bouterse (s.a.) NDP + MC (3rd time)

Chairmen of the College of Administration (from 25 Jun 1948, Executive General Board)
3 Apr 1948 – 18 Jun 1949 Arthur John May (b. 1903 – d. 1979) Non-party

Prime ministers
3 Jun 1949 – 2 Apr 1951 Julius Caesar de Miranda (b. 1906 – d. 1956) PSV
5 Apr 1951 – 4 Jun 1951 Jacques Adam Drielsma (b. 1886 – d. 1976) Non-party
4 Jun 1951 – 6 Sep 1952 Johannes Ate Eildert Buiskool (b. 1899 – d. 1960) Non-party
6 Sep 1952 – 4 Dec 1952 Adriaan Cornelis Jasper Marius Alberga (b. 1887 – d. 1952) Non-party
4 Dec 1952 – 16 Apr 1955 Archibald Currie (s.a.) NPS (acting to 20 Aug 1954)
16 Apr 1955 – 16 Jul 1958 Johan Henri Eliza Ferrier (s.a.) NPS
16 Jul 1958 – Jun 1963 Severinus Désiré Emanuels (b. 1910 – d. 1981) NPS
Jun 1963 – 5 Mar 1969 Johan Adolf Pengel (b. 1916 – d. 1970) NPS
5 Mar 1969 – 20 Nov 1969 Arthur John May (acting) (s.a.) Non-party
20 Nov 1969 – 24 Dec 1973 Jules Sedney (b. 1922) PNP
24 Dec 1973 – 25 Feb 1980 Henck Alphonsus Eugène Arron (b. 1936 – d. 2000) NPS + NPK
15 Mar 1980 – 4 Feb 1982 Hendrick Rudolf Chin A Sen (s.a.) Non-party
31 Mar 1982 – 9 Dec 1982 Henry Roëll Neijhorst (b. 1940) Non-party
9 Dec 1982 – 26 Feb 1983 Vacant
26 Feb 1983 – 8 Jan 1984 Liakat Ali Errol Alibux (b. 1948) PALU
3 Feb 1984 – 17 Jul 1986 Willem “Wim” Alfred Udenhout (b. 1937) Non-party
17 Jul 1986 – 7 Apr 1987 Pretaapnarian Shawh Radhecheran Radhakishun (b. 1935 – d. 2001) VHP
7 Apr 1987 – 26 Jan 1988 Jules Albert Wijdenbosch (s.a.) NDP

Vice Presidents (chairing the Council of Ministers ex officio)
26 Jan 1988 – 24 Dec 1990 Henck Alphonsus Eugène Arron (s.a.) NPS + FDO
7 Jan 1991 – 16 Sep 1991 Jules Albert Wijdenbosch (s.a.) NDP
16 Sep 1991 – 15 Sep 1996 Jules Rattankoemar Adjodhia (b. 1945) VHP + NF (1st time)
15 Sep 1996 – 12 Aug 2000 Pretaapnarian Shawh Radhecheran Radhakishun (s.a.) BVD
12 Aug 2000 – 12 Aug 2005 Jules Rattankoemar Ajodhia (s.a.) VHP + NF (2nd time)
12 Aug 2005 – 12 Aug 2010 Ramdien “Ram” Sardjoe (b. 1935) VHP + NF
12 Aug 2010 – 12 Aug 2015 Robert Leo Ameerali (b. 1961) ABOP + MC
12 Aug 2015 – Ashwin Adhin (b. 1980) NDP

Commanders of U.S. Force Surinam
25 Nov 1941 – 1942 Parley Doney Parkinson (b. 1892 – d. 1958)
c.1943 Paul L. Singer
1942 – 1945 ….

Territorial Disputes:

Area claimed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea arbitration to resolve the longstanding dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters.

Party abbreviations (political parties banned 1985-1987):

ABOP = Algemene Bevrijdings- en Ontwikkelingspartij (General Liberation and Development Party, est.1986); BEP = Broederschap en Eenheid in de Politiek (Brotherhood and Unity in Politics, mostly Maroon, est.1973); BVD = Basispartij voor Vernieuwing en Democratie (Basic Party for Renewal and Democracy, mainly East Indian, split from VHP, est.1996); MC = Megacombinatie (Mega Combination, NDP coalition incl. PALU, BVD to 2009, KTPI and Nieuw Suriname, est.2008); NDP = Nationale Democratische Partij (National Democratic Party, left-wing, formerly authoritarian, est.1987); NF = Nieuwe Front (New Front, anti-NDP coalition of NPS, VHP, Suriname Labor Party, former FDO, est.1990); NPS = Nationale Partij Suriname (National Party of Suriname, Creole, est.1946); PALU = Progressieve Arbeiders- en Landbouwers Unie (Progressive Workers’ and Farm Laborers’ Union, socialist, est.1977); PSV = Progressieve Surinaamse Volkspartij (Surinamese Progressive People’s Party, christian democratic, mainly Creole, est.1946); VHP = Vooruitstrevende Hervormingspartij (Progressive Reform Party, multi-ethnic, originally East Indian to 2011, 1949-1966 named Verenigde Hindoestaanse Partij [United Hindustani Party], est.1949); Mil = Military;

– Former parties:

FDO = Front voor Democratie en Ontwikkeling (Front for Democracy and Development, democratic coalition of NPS, VHP and KTPI, 1987-1990, renamed NF); NC = National Coalition (PNP and NPS, 1973-1977); NPK = Nationale Partij Kombinatie (National Party Combination, pro-independence coalition of NPS, PNR, PSV and Kaum Tani Persatuan Indonesia [KTPI], 1973-1980); PNP = Progressieve Nationale Partij (Progressive National Party); PNR = Partij Nationalistische Republiek (Nationalist Republic Party, Creole, 1959-1961 named Nationalistische Beweging Suriname [Nationalist Movement Suriname], 1961-1987)

Source: World Statesmen.org

 

 

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